U.S. EPA Contaminated Site Cleanup Information (CLU-IN)

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
U.S. EPA Technology Innovation and Field Services Division

Multi-Phase Extraction


Adobe PDF LogoMulti-Phase Extraction: State-of-the-Practice
EPA 542-R-99-004, 1999

This report describes the state-of-the-practice for multi-phase extraction (MPE) of contaminated soil and groundwater, focusing primarily on the application and use of MPE at sites with halogenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs). MPE is an innovative technology that has the potential to be more cost-effective and to remediate sites more quickly than with use of conventional technologies.

Adobe PDF LogoInvestigation of Groundwater Recirculation for the Removal of RDX from the Pantex Plant Perched Aquifer
Boles, K.M.; R.J. Charbeneau; S. Black; K. Rainwater; D.L. Barnes. ANRCP-1998-7, 104 pp, 1998.

A pilot dual-phase extraction treatment system has been installed at one location at the Pantex plant to test the effectiveness of such a system on the removal of high explosive (HE) compounds from the perched aquifer below the plant.

Adobe PDF LogoBioslurping/ Bioventing Demonstration in Tight Soils at Tinker Air Force Base Southwest Tanks Site
Payton, Brent; Andrea Leeson; James Gibbs. AL/EQ-TR-1996-0046, NTIS: ADA327225, 217 pp, 1997. .


EPA SITE Program Completed Demonstration

Site Profiles of Remedial Technologies: Dual Phase Extraction

These profiles describe recent field demonstrations and commercial applications of dual phase extraction.

Adobe PDF LogoSource Reduction Effectiveness at Fuel-Contaminated Sites. Technical Summary Report
2000. Air Force Center for Environmental Excellence, 125 pp.

This report summarizes field performance studies of the following source reduction technologies: air sparging, bioventing, biosparging, soil vapor extraction, multi-phase extraction, and excavation.

Adobe PDF LogoFuel-Specific Bioslurper System Modifications for Enhanced Cost Effectiveness. ESTCP Cost and Performance Report
2004. Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP), CU-9908, 47 pp.

Adobe PDF LogoUse of Prepump Separation Technologies to Enhance Cost-Effectiveness of Bioslurper Systems: Long Term Demonstration
2003. Naval Facilities Engineering Services Center, Technical Report TR-2220-ENV, 90 pp. See also the Cost and Performance Report Adobe PDF Logo

Adobe PDF LogoCost and Performance Report for LNAPL Recovery: Multi-Phase Extraction and Dual-Pump Recovery of LNAPL at the BP Former Amoco Refinery, Sugar Creek, MO
EPA 542-R-05-016, 2005

This case study was prepared to summarize the recovery of light non-aqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) at two locations at the BP Products of North America, Inc. Former Amoco Refinery (former refinery) in Sugar Creek, Missouri. The purpose of this case study was to evaluate the cost and performance of two remediation systems - one innovative (high-vacuum multi-phase extraction) and one comprised of a more traditional approach (dual-pump LNAPL and groundwater recovery).

Adobe PDF LogoJV Task 59: Demonstration of Accelerated In Situ Contaminant Degradation by Vacuum-Enhanced Nutrient Distribution. Final Report
J. Solc.
2007-EERC-04-08, NTIS: DE2007-903316, 74 pp, 2007

Successful remediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils and ground water at a former Mohler Oil site in Bismarck, ND, involved the design, implementation, and operation of a mobile vacuum-enhanced recovery/multiphase extraction system combined with nutrient injection to reduce contaminant concentration levels in site soils and ground water.

Adobe PDF LogoJV Task 47: Demonstration of Vacuum-Enhanced Recovery and Feasibility of Permeable Treatment Barriers for Site Remediation at Hazen
J. Solc.
2006-EERC-09-09, NTIS: DE2007-908302, 62 pp, 2006

Summarizes a demonstration of multiphase extraction for vacuum-enhanced recovery of gasoline from soil and ground water at an Independent Oil site in Hazen, ND.

New Advancements for In Situ Treatment Using Electrical Resistance Heating
Powell, T., G. Smith, J. Sturza, K. Lynch, and M. Truex.
Remediation, Vol 17 No 2, p 51-70, 2007

At the Fort Lewis, Washington, East Gate Disposal Yard, chlorinated solvents (primarily TCE) and petroleum products are being treated in situ in several contaminant source areas using electrical resistance heating (ERH) and multiphase extraction. This paper updates the progress of the project and discusses data that provide insights into the biotic and abiotic degradation processes observed throughout the range of operating temperatures.

JV Task 109: Risk Assessment and Feasibility of Remedial Alternatives for Coal Seam at Garrison, North Dakota
J. Solc.
2007-EERC-12-07, 300 pp, 2007

The performance of SVE and multiphase extraction (MPE) for remediation of soil and ground water impacted by a hydrocarbon-contaminated coal seam was evaluated in Garrison, North Dakota, following the September 2005 release of an estimated 30,000 gallons of premium gasoline from an oil company facility. Free product was detected in cavities of the abandoned mine, as well as high concentrations of residual gasoline-based contaminants. SVE and MPE pilot tests confirmed high contaminant recovery efficiency at all three of the identified hot spots. The suggested remedial strategy is based on contaminant recovery and in situ degradation using a combination of thermally enhanced SVE in the source area, mobile MPE units transitioned to SVE in saturated impacted areas, and high-volume low-vacuum extraction from mining cavities based on a pioneering concept of controlled 'draft and channel' extraction technology. See 2009 update: JV-Task 130Adobe PDF Logo.

Adobe PDF LogoJV Task 104: Risk Reduction Using Innovative Vacuum-Enhanced Plume Controls
J. Solc and B.W. Botnen.
2009-EERC-03-03, 55 pp, 2009

Remediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils and groundwater was conducted at the Vining Oil site in Carrington, ND, via simultaneous operation of MPE and high-vacuum SVE contaminant recovery coupled with vacuum-controlled air and ozone sparging on the periphery of an induced hydraulic and pneumatic depression. Integration of the air-sparging subsystem operated simultaneously with MPE and SVE systems resulted in accelerated transport of volatile organics from the saturated zone and increased recovery of contaminants of concern. Delivery of over 7.7 million cubic ft of oxygen into the contaminated aquifer resulted in in situ biodegradation of benzene and provided for long-term stimulation of contaminant attenuation. Monitoring results from September 2006 to June 2008 are reported.

Adobe PDF LogoDual Phase System Design Pilot Study Report: Gasoline Fueling Station, Royal Farms #96, 500 Mechanics Valley Road, North East, Cecil County, Maryland 21901
Maryland Department of Environment, 124 pp, Jan 2012

The dual-phase extraction (DPE) pilot results indicate the following performance parameters: an ROI of 25 ft (based on distance vs. vacuum graphs); individual recovery well flow rate of 3 gpm; individual recovery well drawdown of 5 ft below static groundwater; and individual recovery well air flow rate of 50 cfm (average flow rate during the tests). Using multiple recovery points with partially overlapping capture zones, between 2 to 5 ft of groundwater drawdown likely will be realized in the target remediation zone. The remediation system will be designed to treat recovered groundwater at a rate of 50 gpm and vapors at a rate of 600 cfm. Additional information: LNAPL cleanups in Maryland.

Adobe PDF LogoPetroleum Products Corporation, 3130 Southwest 17th Street , Pembroke Park , Florida (HWC # 023)
Florida Department of Environmental Protection, 6 pp, June 2013

Full-scale bioslurp cleanup of LNAPL waste oil was conducted nearly round the clock at the Petroleum Products Corporation Superfund Site from 1999 until 2012, when recovery declined. Site data, including bioslurper operations and water quality, were incorporated into a GIS database to monitor remediation progress and support optimization of system performance. The bioslurp system was shut down from April to September 2000 to address extensive oil emulsification in the extracted groundwater, which blocked the carbon polishing system. The bioslurper design was refined by the addition of a chemical treatment to inhibit emulsification. Additional information: Slide illustrationsAdobe PDF Logo