U.S. EPA Contaminated Site Cleanup Information (CLU-IN)

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
U.S. EPA Technology Innovation and Field Services Division

For more information on Soil Washing, please contact:

Jim Cummings
Technology Assessment Branch

PH: 202-566-0868 | Email:

Soil Washing


Adobe PDF LogoChemical Extraction for Uranium Contaminated Soil at the RMI Titanium Company Extrusion Plant, Ashtabula, Ohio. Cost and Performance Report
1998. U.S. DOE, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM, 26 pp.

Adobe PDF LogoDemonstration of Physical Separation/Leaching Methods for the Remediation of Heavy Metals Contaminated Soils at Small Arms Ranges
Published: 1997. NTIS: ADA350280, 292 pp.

The U.S. Army selected two vendors to demonstrate two variations of physical separation/leaching technologies to clean heavy metals from soils at Ft. Polk, LA. The first used a process based on acetic (weak) acid chemistry; the second deployed a method based on hydrochloric (strong) acid chemistry.

Adobe PDF LogoHarbauer Soil Washing/vacuum-distillation System, Harbauer GmbH & Company KG Facility, Marktredwitz, Germany. EPA-BMBF Bilateral Site Demonstration Innovative Technology Evaluation Report
1996. U.S. EPA SITE Program. 110 pp.

Adobe PDF LogoJoint Small Arms Range Remediation (Physical Separation and Acid Leaching) at Fort Polk Range 5, Leesville, Louisiana. Cost and Performance Report
1997. Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP), 47 pp.

Metals in Soils 1998 Technology Status Report: Soil Washing and the Emerging Technologies of Phytoremediation, Electrokinetics, In-Situ Stabilization/ Inplace Inactivation
1999. Interstate Technology Regulatory Council (ITRC) Metals in Soils Team. 46 pp.

This report provides updates of projects using soil washing in Doe Run, MO, Astabula, OH, and Mt. Hope, NJ.

Adobe PDF LogoNordac Soil Washing System, Norddeutsches Altlasten-Sanierungs-Centrum GmbH & Company KG Facility, Hamburg, Germany. EPA-BMBF Bilateral Site Demonstration Innovative Technology Evaluation Report
1998. U.S. EPA SITE Program. 63 pp.

Remediation of Basford Gasworks [UK] Using Soil Washing
2002. CL:AIRE (Contaminated Land: Applications In Real Environments) Technology Demonstration Project Fact Sheet TDP2.

Soil Washing at the King of Prussia Technical Corporation Superfund Site, Winslow Township, New Jersey. Cost and Performance Report
1995. U.S. EPA, 25 pp.

Adobe PDF LogoSoil Washing and Solidification/ Stabilization Work Implementation Plan. Final Draft Report
2000. URS Greiner, Inc., Sacramento, CA. NTIS: ADA382995, 415 pp.

This work implementation plan was prepared for the McClellan Air Force Base remediation program to outline the field activities required to conduct a treatability study assessing the viability (e.g., cost and performance) of soil washing and solidification/stabilization to clean soils containing various heavy metals and/or semivolatile organic compounds.

Adobe PDF LogoTechnology Maturation of Dispersion Technology to Augment Bioremediation
2000. J. Neely, Los Alamos National Lab., NM. LA-SUB-00-82, NTIS: DE00764194, 26 pp.

This demonstration project indicates that the 54GO family of dispersants may provide superior results for classic soil washing to remove waste oils, diesel, creosote, and manufactured gas plant waste and may be better used for pre-treating waste soils before adding microbes to bioremediate the contaminants.

Remediation Trial at the Avenue Using Soil Washing
CL:AIRE: Contaminated Land: Applications in Real Environments, Case Study Bulletin 7 (CSB 7), 4 pp, 2008

A pilot-scale soil-washing demonstration project was carried out in November 2001 at The Avenue using plant-scale equipment, a small-scale replica of a fixed, static plant that operates in Belgium. The demonstration was conducted on different batches of site materials containing (1) mixed organic and inorganic contaminants (PAHs, cyanides), and (2) phenols, petroleum hydrocarbons, and aromatic hydrocarbons.

Innovative Technology Use for Lead Impacted Soil Remediation: Swallowtail Lightstation, NB
Thompson, A. and J. Hick, Public Works and Government Services Canada.
2010 RPIC Federal Contaminated Sites National Workshop, 10-13 May 2010, Montreal, Canada. Real Property Institute of Canada, poster presentation abstract, p 78, 2010

Located on Grand Manan Island in New Brunswick, Canada, the soil at the Swallowtail lightstation contained high concentrations of heavy metals, i.e., lead and barium at 67,400 mg/kg and 8,730 mg/kg, respectively. The site is accessible only by helicopter, which greatly limited the options for remediation. Site use was related to waterway navigation, while future uses possibly include tourism activities. A miniature version of CleanEarth Technologies' innovative and patented soil washing process was developed for the project and airlifted to the site. The soil washing process achieved contaminant removal below targeted levels in 95% of the soil. A traditional remediation strategy would have involved airlifting contaminated soil to the mainland and trucking it to a landfill, whereas the innovative approach allowed for 95% of the soil to be remediated and left on site, with only a small volume of material to be disposed of or recycled. The on-site treatment of contaminants also required fewer helicopter trips, thus lowering travel time and fuel costs and reducing the environmental footprint of the project.

Remediating Mercury Contaminated Soil at Botany Industrial Park
Orica Austalia Pty. Ltd., 2 pp, 2010

A mercury technology was used to produce chlorine at Botany Industrial Park in Australia from 1945 until 2002. The original plant was completely demolished by 2007. To address Hg detected in the site's soil, excavation of the contaminated areas will be followed by on-site application of a water-based soil washing technology in a mobile treatment plant to remove the contaminant. The washing and screening process separates Hg from the bulk of the soil, and the washing water is recycled. The majority of Hg is recovered in its elemental liquid form. Remediation work should commence in late 2010 and be completed in mid 2011. Untreatable contaminated concrete and sludge from the soil washing process will be disposed of at an off-site licensed facility. The enclosed soil washing plant and the main excavation area will have emission control systems that contain activated carbon beds to remove Hg from the air. After confirming that the treatment has achieved remediation goals, the cleansed soil will be stockpiled before reinstallation on site. The project is described in greater detail in the site's Remediation Action Plan (140 pp, 2010).

Adobe PDF LogoField Study on Application of Soil Washing System to Arsenic-Contaminated Site Adjacent to J. Refinery in Korea
Kim, K., J.-G. Cheong, W.-H. Kang, H. Chae, and C.-H. Chang.
International Conference on Environmental Science and Technology: IPCBEE 30:1-5(2012)

The site is contaminated with metals, particularly arsenic, scattered in dust from the refinery's stack. A soil washing plant with a capacity of 3 ton/hr was installed on the site and has been in operation since October 2010. The authors evaluated the results obtained when washing soils of different particle size (sandy or silty) and developed recommendations for an optimized remediation scenario based upon soil texture.

Adobe PDF LogoSuccessful Field Scale Removal of PCB Soil Contamination at a Remote Former LORAN Station Site
Spengler, S.R., J. Silberman, D. Mead, M. Neal, R. Yamauchi, B. Balete, K. Duman, and A. Lutey.
Coast Guard Innovation Expo, October 25-27, 2011, Tampa, Florida. Poster presentation, 2011

At a dump area contaminated with PCBs from disposal of electrical equipment during former Coast Guard use of remote Kure Atoll (Northwest Hawaiian Islands), excavated soils were subjected to a series of soil washing and grain size separation treatments to develop an effective on-island means of treating PCB-contaminated material. The optimized process achieved 75 to 95% PCB removal.