U.S. EPA Contaminated Site Cleanup Information (CLU-IN)


U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
U.S. EPA Technology Innovation and Field Services Division

Solidification

Additional Resources

Amending Soils with Phosphate as Means to Mitigate Soil Lead Hazard: A Critical Review of the State of the Science (Abstract)
Scheckel , G.L. Diamond , M.F. Burgess , J.M. Klotzbach , M. Maddaloni , B.W. Miller, C.R. Partridge, and S.M. Serda.
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part B: Critical Reviews 16(6):337-380(2013)

Phosphate amendments have been studied as a means to mitigate risks from exposure to Pb in soil by promoting the formation of highly insoluble Pb species, such as pyromorphite. The formation of insoluble Pb species thereby reduces the risk of Pb leaching through soils into drinking waters and absorption by soil biota, and may make it less bioavailable during physiological transport in the human gastrointestinal tract following incidental ingestion. This paper provides a detailed description of phosphate chemistry and the goal of converting Pb into pyromorphite. Slides by Scheckel et al. (2013)Adobe PDF Logo

Technology Innovation News Survey

The Technology Innovation News Survey contains market/commercialization information; reports on demonstrations, feasibility studies and research; and other news relevant to the hazardous waste community interested in technology development. This report is updated every two weeks.

Adobe PDF LogoTreatability Study Report for In Situ Lead Immobilization Using Phosphate-Based Binders
Bricka, R.M., A. Marwaha, and G. Fabian.
ATC-9137195, ESTCP Project ER-0111, 195 pp, 2008

Phosphate-based binders marketed by four vendors were evaluated at Camp Withycombe, OR, for immobilization performance of Pb in small arms firing range soil. Variability in Pb stability was observed in all four soil treatments.