U.S. EPA Contaminated Site Cleanup Information (CLU-IN)

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
U.S. EPA Technology Innovation and Field Services Division



This section contains several examples of site-specific applications of S/S with particular emphasis on coal tar (PAH), creosote (PAH) and chromium contamination. It does not include sites where the sole purpose of the S/S was to prepare contaminated soils for off-site disposal at a RCRA Subtitle D facility or where the contaminated soil was transported to a licensed RCRA Subtitle C facility for treatment prior to landfilling.

  • Chromium
  • Coal Tar
  • Creosote
  • Lead
  • Uranium
  • FRTR Case Study Sites
  • Mixed Contaminants Study Sites

Further examples of S/S can be found in:

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Abstracts of Journal Articles

In Situ Stabilisation/Solidification: Project Lifecycle (Abstract)
M.A. Fleri and G.T. Whetstone.
Journal of Hazardous Materials 141(2):441-456(2007)

Follows the lifecycle of S/S projects from a site investigation at a former MGP through the completion of full-scale work. A 10-year post-remediation sampling event also provides evidence of the long-term viability of the technology.

NAPL Containment Using In Situ Solidification (Abstract)
Greacen, J.R. and E.J. Walsh.
Contaminated Soils, Sediments and Water: Science in the Real World, Vol 9. Springer, ISBN: 978-0-387-23036-8, p 477-483, 2005

DNAPL at 20 ft below grade covered a 3-acre area of a former MGP site, preventing site closure and inhibiting development of the property. As part of site closure, soil and DNAPL were stabilized in situ using a crane-mounted, 10-ft-diameter auger capable of injecting a 7% cement grout mixture. The auger was advanced ~22 feet below grade to extend beneath the DNAPL and key the stabilized mass into the underlying clay layer, advancing 2,256 overlapping columns over an area covering ~144,000 square feet. This remedy allowed site closure to proceed.

Solidification/Stabilization Pilot Study for the Treatment of Coal Tar Contaminated Soils and River Sediments (Abstract)
Lawson, M.A., J.G. Venn, L.B. Pugh, and T. Vallis.
Stabilization and Solidification of Hazardous, Radioactive, and Mixed Wastes: Vol 3. American Society of Civil Engineers, Publication STP1240-EB, Paper STP14146S, 15 pp, 1996

Coal tar contamination was encountered at a former coal gasification site in soils below the groundwater table and in the sediments of the adjacent river. S/S treatability testing was performed to evaluate a Portland cement/fly ash binder system with added stabilizing agents. Results were sufficiently promising to warrant pilot testing. Grout containing Portland cement, fly ash, organically modified clay, and granular activated carbon was pilot tested at the site. Evaluation of durability, compressive strength, and permeability indicated acceptable physical characteristics and a decrease in leachable concentrations of most PAHs.