U.S. EPA Contaminated Site Cleanup Information (CLU-IN)


U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
U.S. EPA Technology Innovation and Field Services Division

For more information on Arsenic Treatment, please contact:

Linda Fiedler
Technology Assessment Branch

PH: (703) 603-7194 | Email: fiedler.linda@epa.gov



Arsenic

Detection and Site Characterization

This section is not meant to be comprehensive, but rather provides links for characterization approaches, field analytical equipment evaluations, and analytical methods that are, for the most part, readily available on the Internet. When choosing analytical techniques for water samples, it should be remembered that the new MCL for arsenic has dropped the required quantification limit to 10 µg/L.

Check the National Environmental Methods Index (NEMI) to identify methods for arsenic not cited on this page. NEMI is a free, searchable clearinghouse of methods and procedures for regulatory and non-regulatory analyses.


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Field Analysis | Laboratory Analysis | U.S. EPA Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program Verifications | Other Reports | Literature References

Field Analysis

Evaluation of Two Commercial Field Test Kits Used for Screening of Groundwater for Arsenic in Northern India
N. Sankararamakrishnana, D. Chauhan, R.T. Nickson, R.M. Tripathi, and L. Iyengar.
Science of the Total Environment 401(1-3):162-167(2008)

Two relatively new arsenic field kits, the Wagtech Digital Arsenator and the Chem-In Corp field test kit, were evaluated using known standards for As[III] and As[V] and applied to 157 arsenic-contaminated field samples. The test results were compared with the laboratory-based colorimetric method, i.e., SDDC. WFTK was suitable for measuring arsenic concentrations less than 5 to 100 µg/L. CFTK was not able to detect As(V), and its usage is cautioned in areas where As(V) is known to occur in appreciable concentrations. Longer abstract.

Adobe PDF LogoField Demonstration and Validation of a New Device for Measuring Water and Solute Fluxes, NASA LC-34 Site
Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP), 172 pp, 2006

ESTCP passive flux meter (PFM) demonstration and validation projects include MTBE flux measurement at Port Hueneme, perchlorate flux at the Naval Surface Warfare Center at Indianhead, and TCE flux at NASA Launch Complex 34 at Cape Canaveral.

Field Measurement Methods for Arsenic in Drinking Water
Laurie S. McNeill, et al.
American Water Works Association. ISBN: 1583213201, 75 pp., 2004.

Field Speciation Method for Arsenic Inorganic Species
D.A. Clifford, S. Karori, G. Ghurye, and G. Samanta.
IWA Pub., London. AwwaRF Report 91014F, ISBN:1843399075, 112 pp, Apr 2005.

This report presents a new and reliable field-speciation method for the inorganic arsenic species As(III) and As(V) and compares the new method with a recently developed U.S. EPA preservation method. The EDTA-HAc method will be submitted to the Standard Methods Committee for adoption as a Standard Method for Water Analysis. The method is universal in that it allows immediate field speciation and 30-day preservation of arsenic species by the addition of appropriate amounts of EDTA and acetic acid.

Mass Flux Toolkit to Evaluate Groundwater Impacts, Attenuation, and Remediation Alternatives
Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP), 2006

To help site managers and site consultants estimate mass flux and understand the uncertainty in those estimates, ESTCP has funded the development of a computerized Mass Flux Toolkit, free software that gives site personnel the capability to compare different mass flux approaches, calculate mass flux from transect data, and apply mass flux to manage ground-water plumes. The toolkit spreadsheet and associated documentation are available on the ESTCP contractor's website in a zipped file.

Adobe PDF LogoMonitoring Arsenic in Water, Technical Bulletin No. 8
United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), Supply Division, 2004.

Adobe PDF LogoMonitoring Arsenic in the Environment: A Review of Science and Technologies for Field Measurements and Sensors
U.S. EPA, Office of Superfund Remediation and Technology Innovation, Technology Innovation Program
EPA 542-R-04-002, 29 pp, 2004
Contact: Dan Melamed, dan.melamed@em.doe.gov

Adobe PDF LogoTech Data Sheet: Rapid Characterization of Metals in Sediments Using X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) Technology, Field-Portable XRF: A Rapid Sediment Characterization (RSC) Tool
Naval Facilities Engineering Command, 2 pp, 2000
Contact: Victoria Kirtay, kirtay@spawar.navy.mil

Adobe PDF LogoWhole-Cell Bacterial Biosensors and the Detection of Bioavailable Arsenic
H. Strosnider
U.S. EPA, Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, 23 pp, 2003

Laboratory Analysis

Analytical Methods Support Document for Arsenic in Drinking Water
U.S. EPA, Office of Water, Targeting and Analysis Branch
EPA-815-R-00-010, 52 pp, 1999
Contact: Safe Drinking Water Hotline, hotline-sdwa@epa.gov

Adobe PDF LogoMethod 1632A: Chemical Speciation of Arsenic in Water and Tissue by Hydride Generation Quartz Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry
EPA-821-R-01-006, 35 pp, 2001
Contact: William A. Telliard, telliard.william@epa.gov

Method 1632: Inorganic Arsenic in Water by Hydride Generation Quartz Furnace Atomic Absorption
EPA-821-R-96-013, 34 pp, 1996
Contact: William A. Telliard, telliard.william@epa.gov

Adobe PDF LogoMethods of Analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory: Arsenic Speciation in Natural-Water Samples Using Laboratory and Field Methods
Garbarino, John R., Anthony J. Bednar, M.R Burkhardt
U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 02-4144, 41 pp, 2002
Contact: John Garbarino, jrgarb@usgs.gov

Adobe PDF LogoMethods of Analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory: Determination of Dissolved Arsenic, Boron, Lithium, Selenium, Strontium, Thallium, and Vanadium Using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry
J.R. Garbarino
U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 99-093, 31 pp, 1999
Contact: John Garbarino, jrgarb@usgs.gov

Adobe PDF LogoMethods of Analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory: Determination of Whole-Water Recoverable Arsenic, Boron, and Vanadium Using Inductively Coupled Plasma-mass Spectrometry
J.R. Garbarino
U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 99-464, 22 pp, 2000
Contact: John Garbarino, jrgarb@usgs.gov

New Method and Detection of High Concentrations of Monomethylarsonous Acid Detected in Contaminated Groundwater
McKnight-Whitford, A., B. Chen, H. Naranmandura, C. Zhu, and X.C. Le.
Environmental Science & Technology 44(15):5875-5880(2010)

One of the most toxic arsenic species, monomethylarsonous acid (MMAIII), often defies detection by mass spectroscopy because the acid is too stable and does not ionize under normal conditions. Addition of dimercaptosuccinic acid to samples to add negative charge to MMAIII followed by tandem mass spectroscopy for definitive characterization of the toxic arsenic compound provides a sensitive new technique. Measurement of MMAIII levels near a plant in Wisconsin that produced arsenic-containing herbicides for 20 years revealed MMAIII concentrations in groundwater ranging from 3.9 mg/L to 274 mg/L, 1,000 times greater than EPA's arsenic drinking water guidelines. While the MMAIII concentrations detected at this particular site likely are at the extremely high end of what is possible, the data make the case for closer scrutiny of methylated arsenic chemicals in the environment. Longer abstract. Additional information is available in McKnight-Whitford's 2010 Ph.D. dissertation, Arsenic Binding to Thiols and Applications to Electrospray Mass Spectrometry Detection.

Adobe PDF LogoNIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods (NMAM), 4th Edition
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, DHHS (NIOSH) Publication 94-113, 1994

Method 5022 Arsenic, organo
Method 7900 Arsenic and compounds, as As (except AsH3 and As2O3)
Method 7300 Elements by ICP (Nitric/Perchloric Acid Ashing)
Method 7901 Arsenic trioxide, as As
Method 6001 Arsine

Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Wastes: Physical/Chemical Methods, 3rd Edition
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, SW-846.

Adobe PDF LogoMethod 6010B: Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry (estimated instrument detection limits 35 µg/l)
Method 6020: Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (estimated detection limits 0.02 µg/l)
Method 7061A: Arsenic-Atomic Absorption, Gaseous Hydride (estimated detection limits 0.002 mg/l)
Method 7063: Arsenic in Aqueous Samples and Extracts by Anodic Stripping Voltammetry (estimated detection limits 0.1 µg/l)

U.S. EPA Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program Verifications

Contact: Teresa Harten, harten.teresa@epa.gov

Adobe PDF LogoEnvironmental Technology Verification Report: AS 75 Arsenic Test Kit
A. Abbgy, T. Kelly, C. Lawrie, and K. Riggs. 61 pp, 2002.

Adobe PDF LogoEnvironmental Technology Verification Report: As-Top Water Arsenic Test Kit
A. Abbgy, T. Kelly, C. Lawrie, and K. Riggs. 45 pp, 2002.

Environmental Technology Verification Report: Field Portable X-ray Fluorescence Analyzer, HNU Systems SEFA-P
EPA 600-R-97-144, 85 pp, 1998. [System no longer offered.]

Environmental Technology Verification Report: Field Portable X-ray Fluorescence Analyzer, Metorex X-MET 920-MP
EPA 600-R-97-151, 88 pp, 1998.

Environmental Technology Verification Report: Field Portable X-ray Fluorescence Analyzer, Metorex X-MET 920-P and 940X-Ray Fluorescence Analyzer for Soil
EPA-600-R-97-146, 93 pp, 1998.

Environmental Technology Verification Report: Field Portable X-ray Fluorescence Analyzer, Niton XL Spectrum Analyzer
EPA-600-R-97-150, 93 pp, 1998.

Environmental Technology Verification Report: Field Portable X-ray Fluorescence Analyzer, Scitec MAP Spectrum Analyzer
EPA-600-R-97-147, 81 pp, 1998.

Environmental Technology Verification Report: Field Portable X-ray Fluorescence Analyzer, Spectrace TN 9000 and TN Pb Field Portable X-ray Fluorescence Analyzers
EPA-600-R-97-145, 119 pp, 1998.

Adobe PDF LogoEnvironmental Technology Verification Report: Nano-BandTM Explorer Portable Water Analyzer
A. Abbgy, T. Kelly, C. Lawrie, and K. Riggs. 48 pp, 2002.

Adobe PDF LogoEnvironmental Technology Verification Report: PDV 6000 Portable Analyzer
T. Kaufman, P. White, A. Dindal, Z. Willenberg, and K. Riggs. 41 pp, 2003.

Adobe PDF LogoEnvironmental Technology Verification Report: QuickTM Arsenic Test Kit
A. Abbgy, T. Kelly, C. Lawrie, and K. Riggs. 43 pp, 2002.

Adobe PDF LogoEnvironmental Technology Verification Report: QuickTM II Test Kit
T. Kaufman, P. White, A. Dindal, Z. Willenberg, and K. Riggs. 54 pp, 2003.

Adobe PDF LogoEnvironmental Technology Verification Report: QuickTM Low Range Test Kit
T. Kaufman, P. White, A. Dindal, Z. Willenberg, and K. Riggs. 50 pp, 2003.

Adobe PDF LogoEnvironmental Technology Verification Report: QuickTM Low Range II Test Kit
T. Kaufman, P. White, A. Dindal, Z. Willenberg, and K. Riggs. 54 pp, 2003.

Adobe PDF LogoEnvironmental Technology Verification Report: QuickTM Ultra Low II Test Kit
T. Kaufman, P. White, A. Dindal, Z. Willenberg, and K. Riggs. 54 pp, 2003.

Other Reports

Adobe PDF LogoAbandoned Mine Site Characterization and Cleanup Handbook
U.S. EPA Headquarters and Regions 8, 9, and 10. EPA 910-B-00-001, 409 pp, 2000.

This general overview of mine sites characterization and cleanup also contains information on the potential for encountering arsenic problems and how to deal with them.

Adobe PDF LogoDemonstration/Validation of the Snap Sampler Passive Ground Water Sampling Device for Sampling Inorganic Analytes at the Former Pease Air Force Base
L. Parker, N. Mulherin, G. Gooch, W. Major, R. Willey, T. Imbrigiotta, J. Gibs, and D. Gronstal. ESTCP Project ER-0630, ERDC/CRREL TR-09-12, 116 pp, 2009

Lab studies and a field demonstration were conducted to determine the ability of the Snap Sampler to recover representative concentrations of several types of inorganic analytes (including perchlorate, arsenic, and chromium) from groundwater. Samples taken using a Snap Sampler were compared with samples collected using conventional low-flow purging and sampling and a regenerated cellulose passive diffusion sampler, and analyte concentrations were found to be equivalent to those in the low-flow samples with the exception of unfiltered iron, where concentrations were significantly higher in the Snap Sampler samples.

Environmental Forensics: Contaminant-Specific Guide
Robert D. Morrison and Brian Murphy.
Elsevier Academic Press, Boston. ISBN: 0125077513, 576 pp, 2006

Environmental forensics is the application of scientific techniques for the purpose of identifying the source and age of a contaminant. This book discusses the following contaminants and contaminant groups: mercury, asbestos, lead, chromium, methane, radioactive compounds, pesticides, perchlorate, polychlorinated biphenyls, arsenic, chlorinated solvents, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, crude oil, gasoline, microbes, and compounds found in sewage.

Adobe PDF LogoLocating and Estimating Air Emissions from Sources of Arsenic and Arsenic Compounds
U.S. EPA, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards
EPA-454-R-98-013, 132 pp, Jun 1998
Contact: Info CHIEF, info.chief@epa.gov

This document describes the properties of arsenic and arsenic compounds as air pollutants, defines production and use patterns, identifies source categories of air emissions, and provides emission factors. Arsenic is emitted as an air pollutant from external combustion boilers, municipal and hazardous waste incineration, primary copper and zinc smelting, glass manufacturing, copper ore mining, primary and secondary lead smelting, and agricultural chemical production and application.

Literature References

Measurement and Monitoring Technologies for the 21st Century Initiative (21M2) Literature Search
Literature search conducted under EPA's Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response Measurement and Monitoring Technologies for the 21st Century Initiative (21M2) for arsenic detection and analysis in soil, groundwater, and drinking water.