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Like all remediation technologies, phytotechnology applications are appropriate only under certain conditions, and the design of the treatment system, whether for remediation or containment, will be site-specific. As noted in the Overview, the major limitations of phytotechnologies are contaminant depth, concentrations, and plant growing time. Thus, they are more commonly selected to treat or contain large areas of shallow contamination of low to moderate concentration. The target media can be soil/sediment, groundwater, surface water, or waste streams such as leachate or acid mine drainage. However, contaminant concentrations must not pose an acute risk to receptors nor be detrimental to plant health. Due to these limitations, phytotechnologies are often used in conjunction with other treatment methods or used as a final polishing step in site remediation (U.S. EPA, 2006).

ITRC (2009) details several phytoremediation applications for remediation and containment. Each relies on one or more of the six main phytoremediation mechanisms (phytoextraction, phytodegradation, phytovolatilization, rhizodegradation, phytosequestration, and phytohydraulics). Some applications can be designed to employ specific mechanisms for remediation.

Applications for containment treatment goals:

Phytostabilization cover uses native plants limits infiltration of water to landfill wastes.

Phytostabilization cover uses native plants limits infiltration of water to landfill wastes.

A tree stand of hybrid poplars controls groundwater flow using phytohydraulics.

A tree stand of hybrid poplars controls groundwater flow using phytohydraulics.

Using Bobcats with solid augers to create more holes to plant more (3,500) trees. Source: USGS

Using Bobcats with solid augers to create more holes to plant more (3,500) trees. Source: USGS

  • Phytostabilization covers: Densely rooted plants help keep contaminated surface soil or sediment in place by minimizing erosion due to wind and surface water runoff or flow. Phytostabilization covers can also be used to limit infiltration of water that would mobilize contaminants in soil or buried waste. These types of covers are often referred to as evapotranspiration covers.
  • Riparian buffers: Vegetated areas protect adjacent water resources from runoff and nonpoint source pollution or contamination in groundwater seeps.
  • Tree hydraulic barriers: Trees use phytohydraulics to control the lateral movement of groundwater or a groundwater plume to prevent the spread of contamination. Rows of trees can be planted up or downgradient of a contaminated area to control the flow of groundwater in or out of the area.

Applications for remediation treatment goals:

  • Phytoremediation groundcovers: Densely rooted plants treat surface soil or sediment contamination through one or more phytotechnology mechanisms, such as phytoextraction and rhizodegradation.
  • Phytoremediation tree stands: Trees use phytohydraulics to draw contaminants from soil or from contaminant plumes near the groundwater table into the root zone for treatment via other phytotechnology mechanisms. Deep-rooted trees such as hybrid poplars, can reach greater depths than other remediation applications. Additionally, commercial hybrid technologies such as the TreeWell® have the potential to extend effective treatment depths well beyond those reached by conventional phytoremediation approaches (Gestler et al., 2019).
  • Constructed treatment wetlands: Treatment wetlands are generally constructed on uplands and outside floodplains to avoid damaging natural wetlands by excavating, backfilling, grading, diking, and installing water control structured to establish desired flow patterns (U.S. EPA, 2004). Constructed treatment wetlands have been applied in treating contaminated surface water as well as waste streams such as leachate, wastewater, and acid mine drainage (U.S., EPA, 2004; ITRC, 2003; Brenner, 2001). Additionally, utilization of phycoremediation lagoons using microalgae has steadily risen in recent years, and have proven to be especially effective for treating high nutrient load waste streams (Renuka et al., 2014; Rao et al., 2019)
  • Floating treatment wetlands: Floating treatment wetlands, an emerging technology not covered in ITRC (2009), are generally used to treat excess nutrients in surface water bodies. Small buoyant platforms constructed on surface water bodies allow rooted plants to grow on water rather than sediment. Floating treatment wetlands may have potential to treat oil-contaminated water (Afzal, et al., 2019) and dissolved metals (Abed, et al., 2019), and reclaim wastewater (Rehman, et al., 2019).

ITRC (2009) explains these applications in greater depth including design and implementation considerations, operation and maintenance, and monitoring. More information can be found in Introduction to Phytoremediation of Contaminated Groundwater (Landmeyer, 2011) and in the resources listed below, which highlight full-scale implementations and field demonstrations of phytotechnologies. The Phytotechnology Project Profiles web site developed by the U.S. EPA provides a searchable database of various scale project applications of phytotechnology, including information about site background, the types of contaminants treated, the type of vegetation used, cost, monitoring and performance results, and points of contact and references.


Abed, S.N., et al., 2019. Phytoremediation Performance of Floating Treatment Wetlands with Pelletized Mine Water Sludge for Synthetic Greywater Treatment.

Afzal, M., et al., 2019. Large-Scale Remediation of Oil-Contaminated Water Using Floating Treatment Wetlands npj Clean Water 2:3.

Brenner, F.J. 2001. Use of Constructed Wetlands for Acid Mine Drainage Abatement and Stream Restoration (AbstractAdobe PDF Logo)
Water Science & Technology. 44(11-12), pp 440-454

Gestler et al., 2019. Adobe PDF LogoEngineered Phytoremediation of Contaminated Aquifers — Adapting a Natural System to Meet Remedial Goals. Geosyntec Consultants. RemTech 2019.

ITRC (Interstate Technology & Regulatory Council), 2009. Adobe PDF LogoPhytotechnology Technical and Regulatory Guidance and Decision Trees, Revised. Phyto-3

ITRC (Interstate Technology & Regulatory Council), 2003. Adobe PDF LogoTechnical and Regulatory Guidance Document for Constructed Treatment Wetlands.

Landmeyer, J.E., 2011. Introduction to Phytoremediation of Contaminated Groundwater: Historical Foundation, Hydrologic Control, and Contaminant Remediation (Abstract)
Springer, New York. ISBN: 978-94-007-1956-9, 436 pp

Rao et al., 2019. Phycoremediation: Role of Algae in Waste Management. Environmental Contaminants: Ecological Implications and Management (Abstract). pp 49-82.

Rehman, K., 2019. Floating Treatment Wetlands as Biological Buoyant Filters for Wastewater Reclamation. International Journal of Phytoremediation Abstract. 21:13, pp 1273-1289.

Renuka et al., 2014. Phycoremediation of wastewaters: a synergistic approach using microalgae for bioremediation and biomass generation International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology (Abstract). 12, pp. 1443-1460 (2015).

U.S, EPA. 2006. Adobe PDF LogoIn Situ Treatment Technologies for Contaminated Soil: Engineering Forum Issue Paper. EPA 542-F-06-013.

U.S. EPA, 2004. Adobe PDF LogoConstructed Treatment Wetlands. EPA 843-F-03-013.


The following resources, which focus on examples of full- and pilot-scale applications of phytotechnologies, are organized by the application type.

Phytostabilization Covers

Adobe PDF LogoDemonstration of Phytostabilization of Shallow Contaminated Groundwater Using Tree Plantings at Travis Air Force Base, California: Final Addendum Report No. 3 to the Interim Technical Report
Prepared by Parsons for the Air Force Center for Environmental Excellence
150 pp, September 2005

Riparian Buffers

Adobe PDF Logo100-N Area Strontium-90 Treatability Demonstration Project: Phytoextraction Along the 100-N Columbia River Riparian Zone Field Treatability Study
Fellows, R.J., J.S. Fruchter, C.J. Driver, and C.C. Ainsworth.
PNNL-19120, 52 pp, 2010

Adobe PDF LogoEstablishment of Regional Phytoremediation Buffer Systems for Ecological Restoration in the Great Lakes Basin, USA. II. New Clones Show Exceptional Promise
Pilipovic, A., R.S. Zalesny, Jr., E.R. Rogers, B.G. McMahon, N.D. Nelson, J.G. Burken, R.A. Hallett, and C.-H. Lin. | Forests 12:474(2021)

Tree Hydraulic Barriers

Adobe PDF LogoVogel Paint and Wax Company Superfund Site, Sioux County, Maurice, Iowa: Fourth Five-Year Review Report
U.S. EPA Region 7, Lenexa, KS. 148 pp, 2014

Adobe PDF LogoEvapotranspiration Buffer Leachate Management System Installation Work Plan, Operable Unit 2: Landfill 4, Former Chanute Air Force Base, Rantoul, Illinois: Addendum 1 for Landfill 2
Air Force Civil Engineer Center, Environmental Center of Excellence, 43 pp, 2013

Adobe PDF LogoRange Condition Assessment Report for Naval Surface Warfare Center, Dahlgren Laboratory Ranges, Dahlgren, Virginia
NAVSEA Warfare Centers, NSWCDD-AP-12-00275, pp 373, September 2010

Measuring the Removal of Arsenic Uptake by Poplars and Implications for Use in Hydraulic Control of Groundwater (Abstract)
A. Lewis-Russ, R. Henning, D. Fenske, E. Hicks, J. Haramut, M. Goan, J. Perkins, and C. Bury.
Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds (Monterey, CA; May 2008). Battelle Press, Columbus, OH. ISBN 1-57477-163-9, Abstract B-080, 2008

Phytoremediation Reduces Mechanical Pumping and Ex-Situ Treatment of Ground Water
Technology News & Trends, Issue 24, May 2006

Adobe PDF LogoDeployment of Phytotechnology in the 317/319 Area at Argonne National Laboratory-East: Innovative Technology Evaluation Report
EPA 540-R-05-011, 88 pp, 2003

Naval Surface Warfare Center, Dahlgren, VA: Site 17 - 1400 Area Landfill, Soil Cap with Phytoremediation (Abstract)
R. Mayer.
RPM News 4-6 (Summer 2001)

Phytoremediation Groundcovers

A Comprehensive Trial on PFAS Remediation: Hemp Phytoextraction and PFAS Degradation in Harvested Plants
Nason, S.L., S. Thomas, C. Stanley, R. Silliboy, M. Blumenthal, W.L. Zhang, Y.N. Liang, J.P. Jones, N. Zuverza-Mena, J.C. White, C.L. Haynes, V. Vasiliou, M.P. Timko, and B.W. Berger. Environmental Science: Advances 3:304-313(2024)

Integrated Phytomanagement of a Carbon Tetrachloride-Contaminated Site in Murdock, Nebraska (USA) (Abstract)
Cundy, A.B., L. LaFreniere, R. Bardos, E. Yan, R. Sedivy, and C. Roe.
Journal of Cleaner Production 290:125190(2021)

Field Trial Demonstrating Phytoremediation of the Military Explosive RDX By XplA/XplB-Expressing Switchgrass (Abstract)
Cary, T.J., E.L. Rylott, L. Zhang, R.M. Routsong, A.J. Palazzo, S.E. Strand, and N.C. Bruce. Nature Biotechnology (2021)

Phytoremediation of Acid Mine Drainage Using By-product of Lysine Fermentation (Abstract)
Attila Nagy; Tamás Magyar; Csaba Juhász; János Tamás
Water Sci Technol 1 April 2020; 81 (7): 1507-1517.

Adobe PDF LogoMonitored Natural and Enhanced Attenuation of the Alluvial Aquifer and Subpile Soils at the Monument Valley, Arizona, Processing Site: Final Pilot Study Report
U.S. DOE, Office of Legacy Management. LMS/MON/S07670, 106 pp + 124 pp appendix, 2013

In Situ Assessment of Phytotechnologies for Multicontaminated Soil Management
Ouvrard, S., Barnier, C., Bauda, P., Beguiristain, T., Biache, C., Bonnard, M., Caupert, C., Cebron, A., Cortet, J., Cotelle, S. and Dazy, M.
13(sup1), pp.245-263. 2011

200 Weeks Later: Rhizodegradation of Trimethylbenzenes in Soil at a Former Refinery (Abstract)
B.J. Harding, J.D. Spruit, and D.P. Cassidy.
Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds (Monterey, CA; May 2008). Battelle Press, Columbus, OH. ISBN 1-57477-163-9, Paper B-078, 11 pp, 2008

Field Demonstration of Rhizosphere-Enhanced Treatment of Organics-Contaminated Soils on Native American Lands with Application to Northern FUD Sites
C.M. Reynolds

Phytoremediation with Innovative Irrigation Technique Treats Arsenic-Contaminated Soil
Technology News & Trends, Issue 39, Dec 2008

Adobe PDF LogoProof-of-Concept of the Phytoimmobilization Technology for TNX Outfall Delta: Final Report
D.I. Kaplan, S.M. Serkiz, A.S. Knox, T.G. Hinton, R.R. Sharitz, and B.P. Allen.
WSRC-TR-2001-00032, 99 pp, 2001

Spring Valley, Washington, DC: A Formerly Used Defense Site
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Baltimore District Web site.

Phytoremediation at Ryeland Road Arsenic Site, Heidelberg Township, PA
U.S. EPA Superfund Site Web Page.

Adobe PDF LogoRyeland Road Arsenic Superfund Site: Remediation with Ferns/Restoration/Wetland Creation
U.S. EPA Contaminated Site Clean-up Information website.

Phytoremediation Tree Stands

Endophyte Assisted Phytoremediation a Sustainable and Resilient Nature Based Solution
Murphy, R. and G. O'Toole.
Sustainable Remediation Forum (SURF) webinar, 58 minutes, 2023

Endophyte-Assisted Phytoremediation Systems for Soil and Groundwater Remediation
OToole, G., J. Freeman, C. Cohu, D. Rowe, and E. Pearson.
AEHS Foundation 32nd Annual International Conference on Soil, Water, Energy and Air, 20-23 March, San Diego, CA, 32 slides, 2023

Adobe PDF LogoThe Application of Engineered Phytotechnology for Remedial System Optimization and Ultimate Site Closure - Two Case Studies
Gestler, R. and J. Linton | Design and Construction Issues at Hazardous Waste Sites Virtual Meeting, 26-28 October, 20 slides, 2020

Adobe PDF LogoPerformance Evaluation of Microbe and Plant-mediated Processes in Phytoremediation of Toluene in Fractured Bedrock using Hybrid Poplars
Ben-Israel, M., Ph.D. thesis, The University of Guelph, 163 pp, 2020

Quantification of Toluene Phytoextraction Rates and Microbial Biodegradation Functional Profiles at a Fractured Bedrock Phytoremediation Site (Abstract)
BenIsrael, M., P. Wanner, J. Fernandes, J.G.Burken, R. Aravena, B.L. Parker, E.A. Haack, D.T. Tsao, and K.E. Dunfield.
Science of The Total Environment 707:135890(2020)

A Hybrid Phytoremediation System for Contaminants in Groundwater (Abstract)
L. Martino et al.
Environ Earth Sci 78, 664. 2019

Phytoremediation of Slightly Brackish, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Groundwater from 250 ft Below Land Surface: A Pilot-Scale Study using Salt-Tolerant, Endophyte-Enhanced Hybrid Poplar Trees at a Superfund Site in the Central Valley of California, April-November 2019 (Abstract)
Landmeyer, J.E., S. Rock, J.L. Freeman, G. Nagle, M. Samolis, H. Levine, A.M. Cook, et al.
Remediation [Published online 22 September prior to print]

Tibbetts Road, Barrington,NH: Five-Year Review Reports
U.S. EPA Region 1, Boston, MA. 79 pp, 2008

Adobe PDF LogoConstruction Completion Report, Seaboard Chemical Corporation and Riverdale Drive Landfill Site
North Carolina Dept. of Environmental Quality, NCD071574164, 267 pp, 2017

Engineered Phytoremediation of Benzene, GROs, DROs and Other VOCs in Groundwater (Abstract)
Gatliff, E.G., F. Manale, S. Lucas, and M. Siegman.
IPEC 2012: Proceedings of the 19th International Petroleum & BioFuels Environmental Conference, October 29 - November 1, 2012, San Antonio, Texas. 43 slides, 2012

Adobe PDF Logo317/319 Phytoremediation Site Monitoring Report — 2009 Growing Season
Argonne National Laboratory
ANL/ES/RP-66172, 39 pp, February 2010

Field Note: Irrigation of Tree Stands with Groundwater Containing 1,4-Dioxane (Abstract)
A.M. Ferro and C.E. Tammi.
International Journal of Phytoremediation 11(5):425-440(2009)

Adaptive Treatment Strategy Addresses Extensive DNAPL Contamination
Technology News & Trends, Issue 35, April 2008

Alcoa-Mt. Holly Zero Process Water Discharge Using Phytotechnology
L. Schmelter.
Proceedings of the 2008 South Carolina Water Resources Conference, 14-15 October 2008, Charleston, South Carolina. 4 pp, 2008

Adobe PDF LogoEdgewood Area—Aberdeen Proving Ground Five-Year Review
U.S. Army Garrison, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Final, October 2008.

Phytoremediation of a Petroleum-Hydrocarbon Contaminated Shallow Aquifer, Elizabeth City, NC: Planting Methods and Preliminary Results (Abstract)
R.C. Cook, Master's thesis, North Carolina State University. 97 pp, 2008

Summary of Operations and Performance of the Murdock Site Restoration Project in 2007
L.M. LaFreniere.
ANL/EVS/AGEM/TR-08-07, 418 pp, 2008 Press release.

Long-Term Monitoring (1993-2007) of the Effect of Hybrid Poplar Trees on a Petroleum-Hydrocarbon Contaminated Ground-Water System (Abstract)
J.E. Landmeyer, A.R. Contrael, and T.N. Effinger.
International Conference on Phytotechnologies, Denver, Colorado, September 2007

Adobe PDF LogoIn Situ Remediation of a TCE-Contaminated Aquifer Using a Short Rotation Woody Crop Groundwater Treatment System
Environmental Security Technology Certification Program, U.S. DoD.
CU-9519. 81 pp, May 2006

Demonstration-Site Development and Phytoremediation Processes Associated with Trichloroethene (TCE) in Ground Water, Naval Air Station-Joint Reserve Base Carswell Field, Fort Worth, Texas
S.D. Shay and C.L. Braun.
U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2004-3087, 4 pp, 2004

Landfill Leachate Management by Application to Short Rotation Willow Coppice (Abstract)
G.R. Alker, A.R. Godley, and J.E. Hallett.
Proceedings Sardinia 2003, Ninth International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium, S. Margherita di Pula, Cagliari, Italy. CISA, Environmental Sanitary Engineering Centre, Italy. 12 pp, 2003

Adobe PDF LogoD-Area Drip Irrigation-Phytoremediation Project: SRTC Final Report
E.W. Wilde, et al.
WSRC-TR-2002-00080, 100 pp, 2003

Adobe PDF LogoPhytoremediation of Volatile Organic Compounds in Groundwater: Case Studies in Plume Control
A. Van Den Bos. Status Report prepared for U.S. EPA's Technology Innovation Office under a National Network of Environmental Management Studies Fellowship, 44 pp, 2002

Adobe PDF LogoFY02 Final Report on Phytoremediation of Chlorinated Ethenes in Southern Sector Seepline Sediments of the Savannah River Site
R.L. Brigmon, F.M. Saunders, D. Altman, E. Wilde, C.J. Berry, M. Franck, P. McKinsey, S. Burdick, F. Loeffler, and S. Harris. WSRC-TR-2002-00557, 171 pp, 2003

Adobe PDF LogoTritium Phytoremediation Project: BGC Southwest Plume Cleanup
Savannah River Site Fact Sheet, 3 pp, 2003

Constructed Treatment Wetlands

Removal, Distribution and Retention of Metals in a Constructed Wetland Over 20 Years (Abstract)
Knox, A.S., M.H. Paller, J.C. Seaman, J. Mayer, and C. Nicholson.
Science of The Total Environment 796:149062(2021)

Assessing and Modelling the Efficacy of Lemna Paucicostata for the Phytoremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Crude Oil-Contaminated Wetlands
Ekperusi, A.O., E.O. Nwachukwu, and F.D. Sikoki | Scientific Reports 10:8489(2020)

A Novel Pilot and Full-Scale Constructed Wetland Study for Glass Industry Wastewater Treatment (Abstract)
Gholipour, A., H. Zahabi, and A.I. Stefanakis. | Chemosphere 247:125966(2020)

Adobe PDF LogoRecent Advances in the Application, Design, and Operations & Maintenance of Aerated Treatment Wetlands
Nivala, J., C. Murphy, and A. Freeman. | Water 12(4):1188(2020)

Treatment of Tannery Wastewater in a Pilot Scale Hybrid Constructed Wetland System in Arequipa, Peru (Abstract)
Zapana, J.S.P., D.S. Aran, E.F. Bocardo and C.A. Harguinteguy.
International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology 17:4419-4430(2020)

Applying Rhizobacteria Consortium for the Enhancement of Scirpus grossus Growth and Phytoaccumulation of Fe and Al in Pilot Constructed Wetlands (Abstract)
Ismai, N.I., S.R.S. Abdullah, M. Idris, S.B. Kurniawan, et al.
Journal of Environmental Management 267:110643(2020)

Horizontal Subsurface-Flow-Constructed Wetlands with Tropical Vegetation for the Treatment of Landfill Leachate: Case Study in Cartagena, Colombia (Abstract)
Torres Gil, L.K., M. Saba, and M. Eljaiek-Urzola.
Journal of Environmental Engineering Vol. 146, Iss. 10(2020)

Phycoremediation: Role of Algae in Waste Management (Abstract)
Rao, P. H., R.R. Kumar, and N. Mohan.
Environmental Contaminants: Ecological Implications and Management. pp 49-82.

Phycoremediation of Wastewaters: A Synergistic Approach Using Microalgae for Bioremediation and Biomass Generation
Renuka, N., A. Sood, R. Prasanna, A. S. Ahluwalia.
International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology (Abstract). 12, pp. 1443-1460 (2014).

Adobe PDF LogoLong Term Hydrocarbon Removal Using Treatment Wetlands
Wallace, S., M. Schmidt, and E. Larson.
Society of Petroleum Engineers Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, 30 October - 2 November 2011, Denver, Colorado. Paper SPE 145797, 10 pp, 2011

Long-Term Performance of an Integrated CTW/Phyto Cap System
Kwan, W. and W. Eifert.
Regional Workshop: Introduction to Phytotechnologies and Water Balance (Evapotranspiration) Covers, December 14 & 15, 2011, San Francisco, California. 41 slides, 2011

Long-Term Performance of a Constructed Wetland for Metal Removal (Abstract)
Knox, A.S., E.A. Nelson, N.V. Halverson, and J.B. Gladden.
Soil and Sediment Contamination 19(6):667-685(2010)

Engineered Wetland Removes Subsurface Hydrocarbons While Providing Beneficial Reuse
Technology News & Trends, Issue 36, May 2008

Adobe PDF LogoManufactured Soil Field Demonstration for Constructing Wetlands to Treat Acid Mine Drainage on Abandoned Minelands
C.R. Lee, D.L. Brandon, and R.A. Price. ERDC-TN-DOER-D9, 15 pp, 2007

Constructed Wetlands for the Remediation of Blast Furnace Slag Leachates
M.K. Banks, A.P. Schwab, J.E. Alleman, J.G. Hunter, and J.C. Hickey.
FHWA/IN/JTRP-2006/3, 202 pp, 2006

Containerized Wetland Bioreactor Evaluated for Perchlorate and Nitrate Degradation
Technology News & Trends, Issue 16, Jan 2005

Phytorestoration at the Iowa Army Ammunition Plant (Abstract) P.L. Thompson, D.D. Moses, and K.M. Howe.
Phytoremediation, S.C. McCutcheon and J.L. Schnoor (eds.).
John Wiley & Sons, ISBN: 9780471394358, 481-496, 2003

Adobe PDF LogoConstructed Wetlands: Passive Systems for Wastewater Treatment
R. Lorion. Technology Status Report prepared for U.S. EPA's Technology Innovation Office under a National Network of Environmental Management Studies Fellowship, 29 pp, 2001

Floating Treatment Wetlands

Bioaugmentation-Enhanced Remediation of Crude Oil Polluted Water in Pilot-Scale Floating Treatment Wetlands
Rehman, K., M. Arslan, J.A. Müller, M. Saeed, A. Imran, I. Amin, T. Mustafa, S. Iqbl, and M. Afza. Water 13(20):2882(2021)

How to Enhance the Purification Performance of Traditional Floating Treatment Wetlands (FTWs) at Low Temperatures: Strengthening Strategies (Abstract)
Kumwimba, M.N., A. Batool, and X. Li.
Science of the Total Environment [Published online 3 October 2020 prior to print]

Phytoremediation Performance of Floating Treatment Wetlands with Pelletized Mine Water Sludge for Synthetic Greywater Treatment (Abstract)
Suhail N. Abed, Suhad A. Almuktar & Miklas Scholz
Journal of Environmental Health Science and Engineering. Volume 17, pp 581-608 (2019)

Effect of Chelating Agents in Phytoremediation of Heavy Metals (Abstract) Dipu, S., Kumar, A. A., & Thanga, S. G.
Remediation Journal, 22(2), 133-146. (2012)

Characterization Techniques

Measuring the Removal of Trichloroethylene from Phytoremediation Sites at Travis and Fairchild Air Force Bases (Abstract) Klein, Heather A.
Master's thesis, Utah State University, Logan. 113 pp, 2011

Adobe PDF LogoUser's Guide to the Collection and Analysis of Tree Cores to Assess the Distribution of Subsurface Volatile Organic Compounds
Vrobleski, D.
Prepared for U.S. EPA, Measurement and Monitoring for the 21st Century Initiative (2008)

Adobe PDF LogoPush-Pull Tests to Quantify in Situ Degradation Rates at a Phytoremediation Site
M.T. Pitterle, R.G. Andersen, J.T. Novak, and M.A. Widdowson.
Environmental Science & Technology 39(23):9317-9323(2005)

Adobe PDF LogoMonitoring the Effectiveness of Phytoremediation and Hydrologic Response at an Agricultural Chemical Facility
W.M. DeVita and M. Dawson.
Center for Watershed Science and Education, Univ. of Wisconsin, Stevens Point. Project WR04R007, 15 pp, 2004

Additional Resources

Adobe PDF LogoA Review on Remediation of Iron Ore Mine Tailings Via Organic Amendments Coupled with Phytoremediation
Sarathchandra, S.S., Z. Rengel, and Z.M. Solaiman.
Plants 12:1871(2023)

Assessment of Reed Grasses (Phragmites australis) Performance in PFAS Removal from Water: A Phytoremediation Pilot Plant Study
Ferrario, C., C. Peruzzi, A. Cislaghi, S. Polesello, S. Valsecchi, R. Lava, F. Zanon, G. Santovito, A. Barausse, and M. Bonato. | Water 14:946(2022)

Adobe PDF LogoReview of Phytoremediation Technologies for Radiological Contamination
Sutton, M. and S. Lee. EPA/600/R-21/063, 36 pp, 2021

Phytoremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Soils with Two Plant Species: Jatropha Curcas and Vetiveria Zizanioides at Ghana Manganese Company Ltd. (Abstract)
Nero, B.F.
International Journal of Phytoremediation [Published online 17 August 2020 prior to print]

Comparison of Trees and Grasses for Rhizoremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons (Abstract)
Cook, R.L. and D. Hesterberg.
International Journal of Phytoremediation 15:844-860(2013)

Practical Salinity Management for Leachate Irrigation to Poplar Trees
Smesrud, J.K. G.D. Duvendack, J.M. Obereiner, J.L. Jordahl, and M.F. Madison.
International Journal of Phytoremediation 14(1):26-46(2012)

Successes and Limitations of Phytotechnologies at Field Scale: Outcomes, Assessment and Outlook from COST Action 859
Mench, M., Lepp, N., Bert, V., Schwitzguébel, J. P., Gawronski, S. W., Schröder, P., & Vangronsveld, J. Journal of Soils and Sediments, 10(6), 1039-1070. (2010)

Adobe PDF LogoPhytoremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons
A. Van Epps. Compiled during an internship with U.S. EPA's Office of Superfund Remediation and Technology
Innovation, 171 pp, 2006

A Multi-Process Phytoremediation System for Removal of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons from Contaminated Soils (Abstract)
X.D. Huang, Y. El-Alawi, J. Gurska, B.R. Glick, and B.M. Greenberg.
Microchemical Journal 81(1):139-147(2005)

Adobe PDF LogoCase Studies of Phytoremediation of Petrochemicals and Chlorinated Solvents in Soil and Groundwater
V.A. Nzengung.
Proceedings of the 2005 Georgia Water Resources Conference held April 25-27, 2005, the University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia.

Adobe PDF LogoThe Use and Effectiveness of Phytoremediation to Treat Persistent Organic Pollutants
K. Russell. Overview prepared during an internship with U.S. EPA's Office of Superfund Remediation and Technology Innovation, 49 pp, 2005

Adobe PDF LogoUse of Field-Scale Phytotechnology for Chlorinated Solvents, Metals, Explosives and Propellants, and Pesticides
EPA 542-R-05-002, 2005

In-Situ Bioremediation and Phytoremediation of Contaminated Soils and Water: Three Case Studies (Abstract)
W.L. O'Niell and V.A. Nzengung.
Environmental Research, Engineering and Management 4(30):49-54(2004)

Adobe PDF LogoPhytoremediation Field Studies Database for Chlorinated Solvents, Pesticides, Explosives, and Metals
A. Hoffnagle and C. Green. Compiled during an internship with U.S. EPA's Office of Superfund Remediation and Technology Innovation, 168 pp, 2004

Adobe PDF LogoPhytoremediation of Dissolved Phase Organic Compounds: Optimal Site Considerations Relative to Field Case Studies
H.R. Compton, G.R. Prince, S.C. Fredericks, and C.D. Gussman.
Remediation Journal 13(3):21-37(2003)

Phytoremediation of Industrial Sludge Using Vegetation-Assisted Dewatering (Abstract)
X. Qiu and R.C. Loehr.
Remediation Journal 13(1):121-136(2003)

Adobe PDF LogoDredged Material Reclamation at the Jones Island Confined Disposal Facility. Innovative Technology Evaluation Report
EPA 540-R-04-508, 117 pp, 2003

Adobe PDF LogoPhytoremediation of Dissolved Phase Organic Compounds: Optimal Site Considerations Relative to Field Case Studies
H.R. Compton, G.R. Prince, S.C. Fredericks, and C.D. Gussman.
Remediation Journal 13(3):21-37(2003)

Phytoremediation of Industrial Sludge Using Vegetation-Assisted Dewatering (Abstract)
X. Qiu and R.C. Loehr.
Remediation Journal 13(1):121-136(2003)

Adobe PDF LogoAn Overview of the Phytoremediation of Lead and Mercury
J.R. Henry. Status Report prepared for the U.S. EPA Technology Innovation Office under a National Network of Environmental Management Studies Fellowship, 55 pp, 2000

Adobe PDF LogoThe Bioremediation and Phytoremediation of Pesticide-Contaminated Sites
C. Frazar. Summary prepared for U.S. EPA's Technology Innovation Office under a National Network of Environmental Management Studies Fellowship, 55 pp, 2000

Case Study Compilations

Further updates for the profiles in the following databases have been discontinued. The last complete update of the Phytotechnolgy Project Profiles Database was accomplished in 2011. The last complete update of the Remediation Technology Demonstration profiles was in 2010 with partial updates continued through February 2013. Although the information provided in these databases was current when first created, it may now be outdated.

Phytotechnology Project Profiles Database
U.S. EPA Contaminated Site Clean-up Information website.

Remediation Technology Demonstration Project Profiles
U.S. EPA Contaminated Site Clean-up Information website.

Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable Cost and Performance Case Studies