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Green Remediation Focus

Phoenix-Goodyear Airport Superfund Site

Phoenix, Arizona

Federal Facility

Image Gallery

Recreation Complex Water Storage
Ball Park Irrigation
Park Irrigation
Offsite Heat Exchanger
Golf Course Irrigation
Main Treatment System
Crop Irrigation
Infiltration Gallery
Dust Abatement

Cleanup Objectives: Remediate groundwater contaminated by volatile organic compounds (VOCs), such as trichloroethylene, as well as perchlorate and chromium remaining from past use of the site to manufacture defense and aerospace equipment and operate a U.S. Navy facility. Since 1990, seven groundwater treatment systems (GTSs) have been installed in the non-contiguous "south" and "north" areas and continue to address groundwater extracted at different portions of this 905-acre site, much of which now serves as the Phoenix-Goodyear Airport.

Green Remediation Strategy: The strategy focuses on using best management practices associated with beneficially reusing the treated groundwater within the City of Phoenix and enhancing surface water management in a target area of the West Salt River Basin. Beneficial reuse of the water is critical to the community due its location in the Sonoran Desert, which receives 7-10 inches of rainfall annually and has an average summer temperature of 105°F. Groundwater is the primary source of drinking water in the area.

From 1990 through 2010, all treated groundwater was re-injected into the aquifer to contain the contaminant plume. Significant reductions in the plume size over time have enabled increasing portions of the treated water to be beneficially used. The site's record of decision allows for conveyance of the treated water from one or more of the seven GTSs for the following purposes:

  • Agriculture, as irrigation water for crop production.
  • Industrial uses.
  • Municipal use, to supplement water supplies (subject to certain water rights).
  • Recreation, such as creating lakes or irrigating public parks or golf courses.
  • Surface discharge to nearby rivers, for diversion and downstream municipal use.


  • Reusing an estimated 81.5 million gallons of water treated by the single GTS in the site's south area to irrigate the 105-acre Goodyear Recreation Complex each year, which annually saves approximately $250,000 in purchases from the water supplier and avoids approximately $75,000 in Arizona groundwater replenishing fees. The south area's potentially responsible party (Goodyear Tire and Rubber Co.) constructed the 1.5-mile, $1.3 million underground pipeline used to convey the water and now delivers up to 720,000 gallons of water through the pipeline per day to the City of Goodyear free of charge.
  • Discharging additional water, as available, from the south GTS to the Buckeye Irrigation System for use by local agricultural producers at no charge.
  • Reusing approximately 21 million gallons of water treated by the north area's EA-06 GTS to irrigate the Goodyear Community Park each year since 2013, resulting in an annual $75,000 savings in municipal park maintenance costs. Up to 100,000 gallons per day, or up to 200,000 gallons per day in peak periods, of the treated groundwater is delivered by the Crane Co. (the north area's potentially responsible party) to the City of Goodyear free of charge; the majority of this allotment is used for Goodyear Community Park irrigation.
  • Reusing approximately 197 million gallons of water treated by the same (EA-06) GTS each year to operate a heat exchanger at the Saint Thomas Aquinas Grade School since 2013. The closed-loop heat exchanger conditions cooling water and reduces the building heating and cooling costs by an estimated 40 percent. Costs to construct the approximate 2-mile pipeline for conveying the treated water were covered by Crane Co. Process water discharged from the heat exchanger and the remaining EA-06 GTS effluent is injected into the aquifer for plume containment through five injection wells.
  • Reusing approximately 140 million gallons of the water treated by the north area's 33A GTS each year to irrigate the Palm Valley Golf Course since 2013, resulting in an annual $250,000 savings in the golf course operating costs. The water is delivered to the golf course free of charge through a 1.5-mile pipeline.
  • Discharging a separate portion of the 33A GTS treated water to the nearby Roosevelt Irrigation District canal that sends the water to downstream users for agricultural irrigation.
  • Reusing approximately 52 million gallons of water addressed by the north area's separate "main" treatment system to irrigate onsite agricultural plots each year since 2013 at an annual savings ranging from approximately $94,000 to $250,000, depending on the crop type and alternate water source if the treated water was not available. Crane Co. continues to collaborate with a local farmer in developing additional plots of dryland crops such as rye grasses on a trial basis to minimize wind-driven erosion, control onsite dust and improve visual aesthetics of the site while gaining the crops' carbon sequestration and economic benefits.
  • Returning water specifically to the vadose zone through use of two infiltration galleries constructed in 2015 along the agricultural plots, to optimize flexibility of managing groundwater treated by the main treatment system. The remaining main treatment system effluent is injected back into the aquifer through seven injection wells.
  • Providing a portion of water treated by the north area's EA-05 GTS to the Maricopa County Flood Control for use in controlling dust on county roads and public properties as needed; fugitive dust from unstable or disturbed ground surfaces is a significant contributor to the County's non-attainment status for airborne particulate matter less than 10 micrometers in diameter (PM10). The remaining EA-05 GTS effluent is injected into the aquifer through a single well.
  • Injecting back into the aquifer a total of approximately 967 million gallons of treated water to control the target groundwater plumes each year since 2010 through five of the seven GTSs (the main treatment system, EA-04, EA-05, EA-06 and EA-08).
  • Eliminating groundwater well purging in the site's south areas through use of Hydrasleeve technology for periodic sampling of groundwater. This sampling technique avoids energy consumed for the sole purpose of well purging, saves vehicle gasoline due to reduced travel by sampling personnel, avoids electricity consumption associated with treating purge water, and generally reduces project labor hours.
  • Continuing a partnership among the Arizona Department of Water Resources, Arizona Department of Environmental Quality, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and City of Goodyear as well as local businesses to beneficially use more of the treated water as site remediation progresses.

Property End Use: Commercial business, light industry and municipal airport infrastructure.

Point of Contact: Catherine Brown, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Region 9

Update: June 2016

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