U.S. EPA Contaminated Site Cleanup Information (CLU-IN)

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
U.S. EPA Technology Innovation and Field Services Division

For more information on Optimization, please contact:

Kirby Biggs
Technology Integration and Information Branch

PH: 202-823-3081 | Email:


Optimization Stages:  Design

Optimization Stage:  Design Investigation Stage Design Stage Remedy Stage LTMO Stage

Optimization during pre-design, design or redesign evaluates the selected remedy prior to implementation and operation. It considers the goals of the remedy, conceptual site model (CSM), available site data, performance considerations, protectiveness, cost-effectiveness and closure strategy. Design stage optimization may add greater certainty to the selected remedy and ensure streamlined operations from the start of the project. To learn more about the related Superfund pipeline stage, visit Remedial Design Links to a website outside of Clu-In.

To see information about optimization for the other pipeline or optimization stages, visit Investigation stage, Remedy stage or LTMO stage.

Following are example types of data analyses performed during a design stage optimization.

  • Analysis of investigation data
  • Analysis of treatability and pilot study results
  • Interpretation of the CSM and identification of data gaps
  • Evaluation of design parameters developed by site team
  • Estimation of pump and treat (P&T) extraction rates for plume capture
  • Estimation of  treatment chemical loading, available treatment technologies, and expected performance
  • Estimation of oxidant or nutrient demand for in-situ remedies
  • Estimated demand for soil/aquifer heating
  • Estimates of other common remedy effectiveness and cost drivers
  • Simplistic analytical or numerical modeling to assist with conceptual site model refinement
  • Simplistic analytical or numerical modeling to assist with development of appropriate performance monitoring
  • Identification of alternative remedy components
  • Cost analysis of various technologies and approaches considered during design
  • Consideration of green best management practices
  • Preliminary green remediation environmental footprint analysis

Additional information on optimization is available within Superfund Remediation Optimization:  Definition, Scope, and Approach. In addition, following are some of the resources used during an investigation stage optimization.

Selected Resources

Click on a column heading to sort the table. Search for additional publications or resources by keyword or topic using the Search page.

  Title Document Number Type Date
PDF Hydraulic Optimization Demonstration for Groundwater Pump-and-Treat Systems Vol. II Application of Hydraulic Optimization EPA 542-R-99-011B Case Studies 1999
PDF Cost-Effective Design of Pump and Treat Systems EPA 542-R-05-008 Factsheet 2005
PDF Green Remediation Best Management Practices: Clean Fuel & Emission Technologies for Site Cleanup EPA 542-F-10-008 Factsheet 2010
PDF Green Remediation Best Management Practices: Integrating Renewable Energy into Site Cleanup EPA 542-F-11-006 Factsheet 2011
PDF Green Remediation Best Management Practices: Pump and Treat Technologies EPA 542-F-09-005 Factsheet 2009
PDF Green Remediation: Incorporating Sustainable Environmental Practices into Remediation of Contaminated Sites EPA 542-R-08-002 Factsheet 2008
PDF Overview of EPA's Methodology to Address the Environmental Footprint of Site Cleanup EPA 542-F-12-023 Factsheet 2012
PDF Remediation Optimization: Definition, Scope and Approach EPA 542-R-13-008 General Publication 2013
PDF Understanding Procurement for Sampling and Analytical Services Under a Triad Approach EPA 542-R-05-022 General Publication 2005
PDF Design Guidelines for Conventional Pump and Treat Systems EPA 540-S-97-504 Guidance 1997
PDF Guidance on Systematic Planning Using the Data Quality Objectives Process (EPA QA/G-4) EPA 240-B-06-001 Guidance 2006
PDF Handbook of Groundwater Protection and Cleanup Policies for RCRA Corrective Action for Facilities Subject to Corrective Action Under Subtitle C of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act EPA 530-R-04-030 Guidance 2004
PDF Optimization Strategies for Long-Term Ground Water Remedies (with Particular Emphasis on Pump and Treat Systems) EPA 542-R-07-007 Guidance 2007
PDF Options for Discharging Treated Water from Pump and Treat Systems EPA 542-R-07-006 Guidance 2007
Web Superfund Website - Remedial Design/Remedial Action N/A Guidance
Web FRTR Website - Remediation Optimization N/A Online Resources 2014
Web Superfund Information System Website - Record of Decision System (RODS) N/A Online Resources
Web Superfund Website - Remedial Design/Remedial Action N/A Online Resources 2012
PDF A Data Integration Framework to Support Triad Projects N/A Technical Publication
PDF Best Management Practices: Use of Systematic Project Planning Under a Triad Approach for Site Assessment and Cleanup EPA 542-F-10-010 Technical Publication 2010
PDF Engineering Issue - Indoor Air Vapor Intrusion Mitigation Approaches EPA 600-R-08-115 Technical Publication 2008
PDF Ground Water Issue Chemical Enhancements to Pump-and-Treat Remediation EPA 540-S-92-001 Technical Publication 1992
PDF ITRC Technology Overview: Exit Strategy - Seeing the Forest Beyond the Trees N/A Technical Publication 2006
PDF Implementing Systematic Project Planning N/A Technical Publication 2006
PDF Improving Pumping Strategies for Pump and Treat Systems With Numerical Simulation-Optimization Techniques EPA 542-F-04-002 Technical Publication 2004
PDF Vapor Intrusion Pathway: A Practical Guideline ITRC VI-1 Technical Publication 2007

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